A Student's Guide to the History and Philosophy of Yoga, by Peter Connolly

By Peter Connolly

The note 'yoga' evokes within the minds of many Westerners photographs of individuals appearing workouts and adopting strange, occasionally contortive postures. Such workouts and postures do have a spot in the perform of yoga, however it is way greater than that. certainly, the early literature on yoga describes and defines it as a sort of psychological instead of actual self-discipline. Yoga can be linked to the Indian subcontinent and the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. This revised version of a vintage textbook concentrates at the evolution of yoga within the context of Indian tradition, even though the ultimate chapters additionally discover a few of its hyperlinks with non-Indian mystical traditions and a few of its advancements outdoor of India through the sleek interval. The e-book is geared toward either college scholars taking classes in Comparative faith and Philosophy and practitioners of yoga who search to head past the task and discover its non secular dimensions. for this reason, it provides yoga within the context of its historic evolution in India and seeks to give an explanation for the character of its institutions with numerous metaphysical doctrines. The paintings additionally attracts upon a few conceptual schemes designed to facilitate comparative learn. a few of these are hired through the ebook in an effort to hyperlink the cloth from every one bankruptcy jointly inside of a standard framework. This version contains revisions and expansions to so much chapters and includes one new bankruptcy at the way forward for glossy yoga within the West

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By the end of the epic period, however, they had become anthropomorphized and presented as divine humans living in a heavenly realm. The Vedic hymns thus present us with what might be called ëa primitive polytheismí. 5 On the other hand, we can identify certain tendencies in the Vedic hymns which might have provided inspiration for such a view and the foundations for its future development. One of these is what F. Max Muller called ëhenotheismí, a view in which one god is understood to be the true identity of all the others: one-god-at-a-time-ism.

4. Hence, They call it (the One Real) Indra, Mitra, Varuƒa, Agni. Then there is the heavenly bird Garutmant (Sun). The inspired priests speak of the One Real (ekam sat) in many ways. They call it Agni, Yama, Måtåri‹van. 46)7 It is the Man [puru¶a] who is all this, whatever has been and whatever is to be. He is the ruler of immortality, when he grows beyond everything through food. Such is his greatness, and YOGA IN THE TEXTS OF THE VEDA 27 the Man is yet more than this. All creatures are a quarter of him; three quarters are what is immortal in heaven.

The third group, apart from the verse ›vetå‹vatara, exhibit many of the features of later Sanskrit prose: complexity, elaboration and repetition. Subsequent Upani¶ads tended to be attached to the Atharvaveda and were not regarded as authoritative by most commentators. g. Aitareyins, Jaimin∂yas: TIME °Rgveda Såmaveda Yajurveda (Black) Yajurveda (White) Early Chåndogya Taittir∂ya Bæhadåraƒyaka (T僌ins) Kena (Taittir∂yakas) (Våjasaneyins) Aitareya Prose (Aitareyins) Kau¶∂taki Atharvaveda (Kau¶∂takins) (Jaimin∂yas) Middle Ka¢haka Verse (Ka¢has) (Våjasaneyins) Mahånåråyaƒa Later Prose ∫¶å MuƒŒaka (Taittir∂yakas) Maitråyan∂ya M僌µukya (Maitråyan∂yas) ›vetå‹vatara Pra‹na (Ka¢has) This arrangement highlights the linkages between different Upani¶ads and, most interesting in terms of yoga philosophy, shows that the Upani¶ads in which yoga is described in most detail: the Ka¢ha, Maitr∂ and ›vetå‹vatara are all attached to the Black Yajurveda.

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