By Shayne C. Gad
Acute toxicology trying out offers the 1st defensive line opposed to probably risky chemical compounds. This publication is a whole and functional advisor to accomplishing and studying all regulatory required and normal acute toxicity checks. It offers certain protocols for the entire universal try out designs and reports their improvement and pursuits. Acute Toxicology checking out, moment Edition will curiosity not just staff within the pharmaceutical undefined, but in addition researchers and scholars in toxicology and public health.
* Over a hundred tables summarizing and analyzing results
* whole insurance of all significant try designs and their obstacles and advantages
* present prestige of other attempt designs and versions
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Additional info for Acute Toxicology Testing
5-g portion is weighed and placed on the gauze patch. The test substance patch is placed on skin site 1 and secured. a. 5 g. b. , the gauze patch designated for the test sample is secured to the appropriate skin site with one of four strips of tape at the most central position of the animal. 5 ml is carefully poured from a glycine weighing paper onto the gauze patch, which is held in a horizontal (level) position with the other hand. The patch containing the test sample is then carefully placed into position onto the skin by raising the remaining three edges dorsally until they are completely secured with tape.
The methods currently used are still basically those proposed by Draize et al. and, to date, have changed little since 1944. Though (unlike their near relatives, the eye irritation tests) these methods have not particularly caught the interest or spotlight of concern of the animal welfare movement, there are efforts under way to develop alternatives that either do not use animals or are performed in a more humane and relevant (to human exposure) manner. Among the most fundamental assessments of the safety of a product or, indeed, of any material that has the potential to be in contact with a significant number of people in our society, are tests in animals which seek to predict potential skin irritation or corrosion.
The second set of approaches (II) utilizes a form of surrogate skin culture comprising a mix of skin cells which closely mirror key aspects of the architecture and function of the intact organ. These systems seemingly offer a real potential advantage but, to date, the "damage markers" employed (or proposed) as predictors of dermal irritation have been limited to cytotoxicity. The third set of approaches (III) is to use some form of cultured cell (either primary or transformed), with primary human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) preferred.