Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 4 by Y. Miura (auth.)

By Y. Miura (auth.)

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L/ a~ . l l ~- van der WAAL5force Fig. 3. Forces acting on lyophobic colloids (McKinney, t956) to floc formation than surface charge. It was observed further that flocculation did not result until the bacteria entered the endogenous phase of metabolism. This is explained as being due to the bacteria having insufficient energy under these conditions, to break away from the floc, which in turn permits colloidal surface forces acting on the bacterial cell to predominate and hold the bacteria to the floc.

Chem. Eng. (Japan) 21,708 (1957). : Chem. Eng. 956). : Chem. Eng. (Japan), 19, 2 (1955). Perez, J. , Sandalt, O. : AIChE Journal 20, 770 (t974). Phillips, D. : Biotechnol. Bioeng 8,456 (1966). Richards, J. : Progr. Ind. Microbiol. 3, 141 (1961) Robinson, C. , Wilke, C. : Proceedings of the 4th International Fermentation Symposium, 73 (1972). Roxburgh, J. , Spencer, J. F. , Sallans, H. : Agr. Food Chem. 2, 1121 (1954). Rushton, J. , Costich, E. , Everett, J. : Chem. Eng. Progr. 46, 395 (1950).

2 Fermenter Configurations The conventional fermenters containing organisms in suspension are the batch fermenter (BF) and the continuous stirred tank fermenter (CSTF). If the particles are contained in a tube without a stirrer and the feed enters at the base and the product leaves at the top, an entirely new situation arises. At low flow-rates the particles are stationary and the flow passes through the bed by a tortuous path; this is the so-called "fixed bed" arrangement. As the flow-rate is increased the pressure loss in the fluid as it passes through the bed becomes equal to the weight of the bed, and in consequence the particles become suspended in the fluid largely out of contact with one another.

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