Amerikanuak: Basques In The New World by William A. Douglass

By William A. Douglass

A vintage examine of the Basque diaspora now on hand in paperback. whilst Amerikanuak used to be first released in 1975, it was once hailed as either a pioneering learn of 1 of the yank West’s most crucial ethnic minorities and as an enticing, entire survey of Basque migration and cost within the Americas. Its worth as a necessary creation to the heritage of the Basque humans and their 5 centuries of involvement within the New international has now not reduced within the thirty years for the reason that, and it is still the main obtainable evaluate of the Basque diaspora within the Western Hemisphere. learn for the booklet took the authors via ten states of the yank West, Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela as they traced the exploits of Basque whalers within the medieval Atlantic, the Basque conquistadors, missionaries, and colonists who shaped a dramatic a part of the heritage of Spanish the USA, and the Basque sheepherders who have been the spine of the now approximately vanished range-sheep empires of the yank West. additionally they keep on with the tale of the Basques again to their mysterious origins in prehistory to supply history for knowing the Basques’ personality and their place of birth within the Pyrenean mountains and seacoasts among France and Spain. This new paperback version makes this quintessential learn of Basques in the United States on hand to a different iteration of readers. It encompasses a clean preface by means of William A. Douglass that considers the research of Basque emigration because the book’s first e-book. The Basque sequence

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41 This defeat had repercussions in the court of the Franks. The dux was the most important post in a Frankish region, and the defeat of Bladastes signaled a new military danger to the south. The anger of the Franks was expressed by the poet Venantius Fortunatus in one of his compositions dedicated to the count of Galactorius, on the occasion of the latter's appointment as ruler of Bordeaux. "42 It is interesting to note that the Franks called the Basques "vagabonds," probably because the Basque military forces operated in small mobile units, raiding for booty and protecting Basque interests (primarily their access to winter pasturage for the transhumant herds) in the low-lying regions to the north of the Pyrenees.

In 454, Theodorus, king of the Goths, sent his brother at the head of a large army to confront the bagaudae of the Ebro valley. These insurrections and the weakness of the Goths to a large extent shielded the Basques from direct military pressure. However, there were certain exceptions. 33 In 472, and again in 481, Pamplona was occupied temporarily by the G ~ t h s . ~ ~ The Franks crossed the Loire and defeated the Goths in the year 507. It is likely that the Basques were involved, because the bishop of Lescar, a town on the northern frontier of the Basque country, raised an army to attack the Goths' rear guard at the same time that a major battle raged near Poitiers.

Leovigildus was not able to extend his control into the mountain areas,? but he did inflict a defeat on the Basques and established a fortified city in their territory, with a military garrison that represented a direct and constant challenge to Basque independence. Meanwhile, the Frankish king Chilpericus, possibly encouraged by the Goths' successes, dispatched the duke of Bladastes against northern Vasconia. This attack, which also took place in 581, had a different outcome. 41 This defeat had repercussions in the court of the Franks.

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