By Thomas M. Schmitt
A textual content and reference giving a pragmatic account of tools the decision and comprehension of commercially very important person surfactants, in addition to these in compounds. Describes the make-up and structural drawings for an array of surfactants, experiences strategies for settling on them within the surroundings, and extra.
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Additional info for Analysis of Surfactants
They are still valuable for a thorough characterization of a new product. (a) Column chromatography (1) Salting out chromatography. Hydroxyalkanesulfonates and alkenesulfonates may be separated from each other by a variant of ion exchange chromatography called saltingout chromatography (93). Procedure (93) The separation is performed on a column of Amberlite CG-50, 25 x 400 mm, mixed Na+ and H+ form, thermostatted at 352C. 5 M NaCl solution is used, with the column effluent checked batchwise by the methylene blue method to detect TM Copyright n 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.
The combined extracts are washed free of iodine with two 1-mL portions of 20% aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, then evaporated to dryness on a water bath. Analysis is by gas chromatography on a 5-ft column of 10% polyethylene glycol diadipate on Celite. Calibration is effected by carrying known alcohols through the procedure. 4. Alkyl Sulfate or Alkylphenol Sulfate Content This analysis is normally performed by HPLC (see Chapter 7) or, after hydrolysis of the sulfate group, by GC. Wet chemical methodology may also be applied: if the sulfate groups are hydrolyzed, the determination of unethoxylated material can be performed in the same way as for alcohol ethoxylates.
G. Unsaturation (Iodine Number) Unsaturation is described in Chapter 2, under characterization of nonionic surfactants. The Wijs procedure is most often specified for anionic surfactants. H. Water Content Water content is almost always determined by titration by the Karl Fischer method (31). Weight loss methods are suitable for certain products, but the presence of volatile solvents or unsulfonated oil will lead to errors. Azeotropic distillation is used only in special cases. 1 . , Hydranal® from Riedel de Haen).